Thursday, July 16, 2020
How Extroversion in Personality Influences Behavior Theories Personality Psychology Print How Extroversion in Personality Influences Behavior By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on September 29, 2019 Portra Images / Taxi / Getty Images More in Theories Personality Psychology Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In the big 5 theory of personality, extroversion (often known as extraversion) is one of the five core traits believed to make up human personality. Extroversion is characterized by sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness, and excitability. People who are high in extroversion tend to seek out social stimulation and opportunities to engage with others. These individuals are often described as being full of life, energy, and positivity. In group situations, extroverts (extraverts) are likely to talk often and assert themselves. Introverts, on the other hand, are people who are low in extroversion. They tend to be quiet, reserved and less involved in social situations. It is important to note that introversion and shyness are not the same things. People low in extroversion are not afraid of social situations, they simply prefer to spend more time alone and do not need as much social stimulation. Extroverts are often unfairly pegged as overly-talkative or attention-seeking. In reality, they simply gain energy from engaging in social interaction. People who are high in extroversion need social stimulation to feel energized. They gain inspiration and excitement from talking and discussing ideas with other people. 1:33 Signs You May Be An Extrovert Common Extroversion Traits Extroversion is often marked by a number of different sub-traits. Some include: WarmthSeeking novelty and excitementGregariousnessAssertivenessCheerfulnessTalkativenessEnjoys being the center of attentionAction-orientedFriendlyEngaging Causes of Extroversion The exact reason why people tend to be more extroverted or more introverted has been the subject of considerable debate and research in psychology. As with many such debates, the question tends to boil down to two key contributors: nature or nurture. Extroversion clearly has a strong genetic component. Twin studies suggest that genetics contribute somewhere between 40 and 60 percent of the variance between extroversion and introversion.Environment can also have an impact. Sibling studies have suggested that individual experiences carry greater weight than do shared experiences in families.Variability in this trait may be linked to differences in cortical arousal. Extroverts tend to need more external stimulation while introverts tend to become stimulated very easily, according to some researchers, including Hans Eysenck. Extroversion and Behavior How does extroversion impact our behavior? Researchers have found that being high in this personality trait is linked to a number of different tendencies. In addition to contributing to our personalities, this trait may also play a role in the type of career that we end up choosing. According to researchers, extroversion is associated with leadership behavior. Since extroverts are more likely to assert themselves in groups, it makes sense that these individuals often take on leadership roles when working with other people. Research has also shown that extroverts are less likely to experience anxiety over negative feedback. Those high in extroversion are often described as having a very positive outlook on life as well as being friendly, energetic, and highly adaptable. All of these tendencies can serve a person well, particularly in certain social situations. As you might imagine, high levels of extroversion can be particularly well suited to jobs that require a great deal of interaction with other people. Teaching, sales, marketing, public relations, and politics are all jobs in which an extrovert might do well. Introverts prefer less social interaction so jobs that require lots of independent work are often ideal. Writing, computer programming, engineering, and accounting are all jobs that might appeal to a person low in extroversion. How Common Is Extroversion? While it might seem like everyone in your circle of friends and acquaintances is more extroverted than you, recent research actually indicates that extroversion is less common than previously thought. In a study published in Psychological Science, researchers found that extroverts tend to be overrepresented in social networks. Because outgoing, popular people tend to have a lot of friends, they are disproportionately represented in social networks. âIf youâre more extraverted, you may really have a skewed view of how extraverted other people are in general,â explained researcher Daniel C. Feiler of Dartmouth University. âIf youâre very introverted you might actually have a pretty accurate idea.â The researchers also suggested that there are two key factors that determine who people become friends with. Extroverts tend to be very sociable, making them more likely to form new friendships than introverts. People also tend to form friendships with people with similar levels of extroversion as themselves. While extroverts are more likely to become friends with other extroverts, introverts tend to forge relationships with both introverts and extroverts. To extroverts, it seems like most people are also extroverted because that personality trait is overrepresented among their group of friends and acquaintances. Introverts, however, might have a better grasp of the true structure of social networks. 5 Signs You Might Be an Extrovert
Thursday, May 21, 2020
The Japanese word for bamboo is take. Bamboo in Japanese Culture Bamboo is a very strong plant. Because of its sturdy root structure, it is aÃ symbol of prosperity in Japan. For years, people were told to run into the bamboo groves in the event of an earthquake, because the bamboos strong root structure would hold the earth together. Simple and unadorned, the bamboo is also symbolic of purity and innocence. Take o watta youna hito literally translates into a man like fresh-split bamboo and refers to a man with a frank nature. Bamboo appears in many ancient tales. Taketori Monogatari (Tale of the Bamboo Cutter) also known as Kaguya-hime (The Princess Kaguya) is the oldest narrative literature in kana script, and one of the most beloved stories in Japan. The story is about Kaguya-hime, who is found inside a bamboo stalk. An old man and woman raise her and she becomes a beautiful woman. Although many young men propose to her, she never marries. Eventually on an evening when the moon is full, she returns to the moon, as it was her place of birth. Bamboo and sasa (bamboo grass) are used in many festivals to ward off evil. On Tanabata (July 7), people write their wishes on strips of paper of various colors and hang them on sasa. Click this link to learn more about Tanabata. Bamboo Meaning Take ni ki o tsugu (putting bamboo and wood together) is synonymous with disharmony. Yabuisha (yabu are bamboo groves and isha is a doctor) refers to an incompetent doctor (quack). Though its origin is not clear, it is probably because just as bamboo leaves rustle in the slightest breeze, an incompetent doctor makes a great to-do about even the slightest illness. Yabuhebi (hebi is a snake) means to reap an ill fortune from an unnecessary act. It comes from the likelihood that poking a bamboo bush may flush a snake. It is a similar expression to, let sleeping dogs lie. Bamboo is found all over in Japan because the warm, humid climate is well suited to its cultivation. It is frequently used in construction and handicrafts. Shakuhachi, is a wind instrument made of bamboo. Bamboo sprouts (takenoko) also have long been used in Japanese cuisine. The pine, bamboo, and plum (sho-chiku-bai) are an auspicious combination symbolizing long life, hardiness, and vitality. The pine stands for longevity and endurance, and the bamboo is for flexibility and strength, and the plum represents a young spirit. This trio is often used in restaurants as a name for the three levels of quality (and price) of its offerings. It is used instead of directly stating quality or price (e.g. the highest quality would be pine). Sho- chiku-bai is also used for the name of a sake (Japanese alcohol) brand. Sentence of the Week English: Shakuhachi is a wind instrument made of bamboo. Japanese: Shakuhachi wa take kara tsukurareta kangakki desu. Grammar Tsukurareta is the passive form of the verb tsukuru. Here is another example. Passive form in Japanese is formed by the verb ending changes. U-verbs (Group 1 verbs): replace ~u by ~areru kaku Ã¢â¬â kakarerukiku Ã¢â¬â kikarerunomu Ã¢â¬â nomareruomou Ã¢â¬â omowareru Ru-verbs (Group 2 verbs): replace ~ru by ~rareru taberu Ã¢â¬â taberareumiru Ã¢â¬â mirareruderu Ã¢â¬â derareruhairu Ã¢â¬â hairareru Irregular verbs (Group 3 verbs) kuru Ã¢â¬â korarerusuru Ã¢â¬â sareru Gakki means instrument. Here are different kinds of instruments. Kangakki Ã¢â¬â wind instrumentGengakki Ã¢â¬â stringed instrumentDagakki Ã¢â¬â percussion instrumenttake Ã¢â¬â bambookangakki Ã¢â¬â a wind instrumentWain wa budou kara tsukurareru. Ã¢â¬â Wine is made from grapes.Kono ie wa renga de tsukurareteiru. Ã¢â¬â This house is made of brick.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What would actually happen if everyone was forced to be equal? Kurt Vonnegut envisioned this in his masterpiece, Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison Bergeron.Ã¢â¬ The story is about Ã¢â¬Å"what would happen if a government or some other power takes this notion seriousÃ¢â¬ (Mowery). The protagonist, Harrison, who is arrest for Ã¢â¬Å"exuberant individuality,Ã¢â¬ escapes from prison and goes on a national television station to declare himself emperor, only later to be killed by the handicap general Diane Moon. In Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison Bergeron,Ã¢â¬ Kurt Vonnegut satirizes the movement toward egalitarianism and the effect of television on people. Egalitarianism can be absurd and detrimental to American society. In the story, heavy weights are put on strong people, and grotesque masks are put onÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Literary Critic, Newton Minow, called television a vast wasteland of destructive or meaningless programs. Minow claimed that Ã¢â¬Å"instead of challenging people to think, telev ision programming was making it easier for people to avoid serious thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Hist. text). The uses of television desensitize HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Mother, Hazel. Although, she did shed a tear when she witnesses her son being murder on television, she said, Ã¢â¬Å"I forgot, it was something real sad on television.Ã¢â¬ Hazel became so numbed watching television; she forgot what she was crying about (Alvarez). In addition, one may determine that Hazel has attention deficit disorder because she is not to focus on anything (themes and cons.). According to Karen Wood, Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison Bergeron concerns with technological problems only as these problems express and explicate character- the character of the human raceÃ¢â¬ (Karen Wood). In summary, the people gave up their individuality for the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ of society of being equal. VonnegutÃ¢â¬â¢s real point behind Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison BergeronÃ¢â¬ is a serious attack on the idea of enforced equality (Mowery). At the end of the story, Vonnegut seems to say that there is no government capable of suppressing the individual completely. Rather, the inner strength of human nature at its finest is more powerful that ill-conceived laws (Mowery). In a criticism, Stanley Schatt describes when Harrison is dies, Ã¢â¬Å"It is the lost beauty, grace, and wisdom.Ã¢â¬ In summary, Today American society canShow MoreRelatedThe Downfalls of Egalitarianism and Television964 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesseriousÃ¢â¬ (Mowery). The protagonist, Harrison, who is arrest for Ã¢â¬Å"exuberant individuality,Ã¢â¬ escapes from prison and goes on national television station to declare himself emperor, only later to be killed by the handicap general Diane Moon. In Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison Bergeron,Ã¢â¬ Kurt Vonnegut satirizes the movement toward egalitarianism and the effect of television on peo ple. Egalitarianism can be absurd and detrimental to American society. In the story, heavy weights are put on strong people, and grotesque masks areRead MoreMikahil Gorbachev: A Brief Biography Essay1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin this country.Ã¢â¬ Gorbachev also recognized that in order for the Soviet Union to successfully form international joint ventures and global standards, all sensitive employment issues that had been previously ignored had to be addressed. The egalitarianism of the Communist theory needed to be challenged, and uniformity of income regardless of performance had to end. Incentives were necessary in order to motivate worker competition in a fair environment. Therefore, Gorbachev initiated a wage reformRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words Ã |Ã 658 Pagesspending reached a colossal $4.5bn by 2006. Companies recognised that well-informed patients were prepared to ask for drugs by name, creating a powerful Ã¢â¬ËpullÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy (see Box 3). DTC was costly because of the vast target audience and expensive television advertising. It also required new marketing skills Ã¢â¬â both PÃ¯ ¬ zer and Novartis employed consumer marketers. DTC rendered drug advertising much more visible an d, combined with high-proÃ¯ ¬ le safety alerts, risked creating a backlash against the industryRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesdecisions? Why or why not? CASE INCIDENT 1 Ã¢â¬Å"Lessons for Ã¢â¬ËUndercoverÃ¢â¬â¢ BossesÃ¢â¬ of successful Swedish organizations revealed that MBWA was an approach common to several firms that received national awards for being great places to work. The popular television program Undercover Boss took MBWA to the next level by having top executives from companies like Chiquita Brands, DirectTV, Great Wolf Resorts, and NASCAR work incognito among line employees. Executives reported that this process taught them howRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagescalories during an eighthour day. That is fewer calories than are contained in the typical lunch of a hamburger, french fries, and a milkshake. More than 90 million adults watch at least two hours of television per day (and, parenthetically, by the age of 6 children have spent more time watching television than they will spend speaking to their fathers over their entire lifetimes), so it is easy to predict the Table 2.7 ConÃ¯ ¬ rmed BeneÃ¯ ¬ ts of Regular Vigorous Exercise Ã¢â¬ ¢ Blood pressure is lowered. Ã¢â¬ ¢Read MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words Ã |Ã 1186 Pagesplan. COMPANY PROFILE The company is the film division for a large entertainment conglomerate. The main office is located in Anaheim, California. In addition to the feature film division, the conglomerate includes theme parks, home videos, a television channel, interactive games, and theatrical productions. The company has been enjoying steady growth over the past 10 years. Last year total revenues increased by 12 percent to $21.2 billion. The company is engaged in negotiations to expand its theme
Pros and Cons of Premarital Sex and Euthanasia Purpose: To Inform in debate form to the audience about the Pros and Cons of Sex before Marriage and the act of Euthanasia. Specific Purpose: To come to a better understanding about both topics and to sort out the main Pros and Cons of each topic individually. Thesis Statement: Sex before Marriage and Euthanasia have many fascinating facts and opinions to support one another. We will write a custom essay sample on Premarital Sex and Euthanasia or any similar topic only for you Order Now I will discuss the Pros and Cons, such as the advantages and disadvantages of each topic to better help my debate on each issue. Main Point 1 Pros of Premarital sex. a. The fulfillment of a sexual desire b. Beneficial to the relationship in a communcation level c. Acceptance from partner d. Fun and exciting Main Point 2 Cons of Premarital Sex a. Is morally incorrect b. The fear of pregnancy c. Guilt d. Lack of self-respect Main Point 3 Pros of Euthanasia a. Relieve extreme pain b. To terminate the feeling of a low life c. Frees up medical funds d. Freedom of Choice Ã¢â¬Å"The Right to DieÃ¢â¬ Main Point 4 Cons of Euthanasia a. Devalues human life and rights b. Medical degrees involved in causing death, rather then saving lives c. Mistakes can happen d. Lack of respect to religious beliefs Yes? No? Reading upon these two controversial topics statiscally the majority of society will come to agree on the rights of Ã¢â¬Å"Premarital SexÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"Right to DieÃ¢â¬ about 70% of opinions are based on the Pros and what this leads me to an unclouded understanding that society now a days main concern is receiving instant gratification. People are no longer patient and are loosing their cultural, social and self respect by agreeing to mainly the pros yet there is a bright understanding of itÃ¢â¬â¢s Cons which supports the morally correct decision to make and the religious aspect of both topics. Contribute to this websites and help support your opinion, donÃ¢â¬â¢t just let your idea and opinion go to waste! How to cite Premarital Sex and Euthanasia, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Slavery annon We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness (Thomas Jefferson). Slavery Slavery in America stems well back to when the new world was first discovered and was led by the country to start the African Slave Trade- Portugal. The African Slave Trade was first exploited for plantations in that is now called the Caribbean, and eventually reached the southern coasts of America (Slavery Two; Milton Meltzer). The African natives were of all ages and sexes. Women usually worked in the homes, cooking and cleaning, whereas men were sent out into the plantations to farm. Young girls would usually help in the house also and young boys would help in the farm by bailing hay and loading wagons with crops. Since trying to capture the native Indians, the Arawaks and Caribs, failed (Small-Pox had killed them), the Europeans said out to capture African slaves. They were shipped from Africa by the Europeans in what was called The Triangular Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. This was an organized route where Europeans would travel to Africa bringing manufactured goods, capture Africans and take them to the Caribbean, and then take the crops and goods and bring them back to Europe. The African people, in order to communicate invented a language that was a mixture of all the African languages combined, called Creole. This language now varies from island to island. They also kept their culture which accounts for calypso music and the instruments used in these songs. Slavery was common all over the world until 1794 when France signed the Act of the National Convention abolishing slavery. It would take America about a hundred years to do the same (Slavery Two; Milton Meltzer). George Washington was America's hero. He was America's first president. He was a slave owner. He deplored slavery but did not release his slaves. His will stated that they would be released after the death of his wife (The Volume Library; 1988). Washington wasn't the only president to have slaves. Thomas Jefferson wrote, All men are created equal but died leaving his blacks in slavery. In 1775 black Americans were sent to fight in the revolutionary army. The British proposed that if a black man was to join their army, they would be set free afterwards. America originally planned not to let the blacks fight in the army, but when hearing this, let them enlist. Only Georgia and South Carolina refused to let them enlist, but paid for their racism when each lost 25,000 blacks to the British. The slaves returned on an honourable discharge after securing America's freedom, but not their own (Software Toolworks Encyclopedia; 1992). Slavery continued and so did the numbers of slaves trying to escape to the free states or into Canada. A runaway slave would be found by bloodhounds, trained to find black slaves. Then the slave, upon returning, would be executed or severely whipped. The Underground Railroad was a project that helped black slaves escape into Canada, especially Amherstburg. The system involved 3,000 white helpers and freed an estimated 75,000 people after the civil war. Slavery in the middle of the 1800's was abolished except for the rebellion states in the south. In 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation was issued which made slavery illegal in the states that had rebelled and allowed black slaves to serve in the army and get other jobs, or continue to work on the plantations, as employees making money. The nightmare of slavery was over but a new one was to begin. One that was worse for it was prevalent but was secret and silent. One that exists today. One that does not shrink but rather grows. Racism was and is upon us. Racism I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character (Martin Luther King Jr.) Ku Klux Klan. Neo Nazis. The Aryan Nations. The American Nazi Party. What are these groups? Why are they present in a land of supposed equality of all men? They are there because there are millions of Americans that believe in their message of white pride. The African American population is growing and Americans are now a mixed group of people. Black people are white people's neighbours, doctors, friends. With a growing unity between the two
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Reducing Out-Group Bias in Huntingtons Disease Patients Free Online Research Papers HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (HD) is a genetic condition, which results in a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. The disease leads to loss of neurons in the striatum, with more severe neuronal loss as the disease progresses. The present study aims to investigate how such degeneration may affect social stereotyping. Perspective taking has been used by numerous authors to try and reduce stereotypes, and bias against groups outside of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. It was hypothesised that due to degeneration of brain areas thought to be key to the process of perspective taking and reducing bias, that HD patients would be unable to use a perspective taking task to reduce their in-group bias. The participants for this study were nine HD patients attending the Queen Elizabeth Psychiatric Hospital HD clinic, and fourteen control participants, matched for educational background. A number of measures were used, including a relative positivity scale andtrait overlap to measure in-group bias, and tests of prefrontal cortex function. Analysis showed no support for the hypothesis, with no significant differences found on the measures of relative positivity and trait overlap. However, a number of methodological problems are discussed, along with directions for future research. Introduction HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (HD) is an inherited, degenerative illness, thought to affect between four to ten individuals of Caucasian origin in every 100 000 (Reddy, Williams and Tagle, 1999). The disease results in a variety of motor and psychiatric symptoms. These symptoms usually begin around the age of 40 to 50 years. In the early stages of the disease, these symptoms include fidgeting, clumsiness, dance like movements referred to as chorea, absentmindedness, depression, apathy, irritability and psychosis. As the disease progresses, these symptoms worsen, with speech deterioration, facial grimacing and the development of an inability to swallow. There is also a decline in cognitive functions, especially spatial deficits, and executive function (Brandt, Leroi, OÃ¢â¬â¢Hearn, Rosenblatt and Margolis, 2004). In its juvenile form, the age of onset is much earlier, and the symptoms more severe. The disease eventually leads to death. Snowden, Gibbons, Blackshaw, Doubleday, Thompson, Crauford, Foster, Happe and Neary (2003) also reported some social cognition deficits in patients with HD. In their study, HD patients were found to have deficit compared to controls in the comprehension and understanding of humourous cartoons and story vignettes, although these deficits were more pronounced in patients with frontotemporal dementia, another disorder affecting the frontostriatal systems. HD is an autosomal dominant genetic condition. The disease has been linked to a mutation of the IT15 gene on chromosome 4 (the HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease Collaborative Research Group, 1993). The mutation of this gene causes the polymorphic trinucleotide repeat of the sequence CAG, which codes for the huntingtin preotein, to expand to over 36 repeats. This in turn causes the protein Huntingtin to fold abnormally (Li and Li, 2004), initiating a protective cellular response meant to prevent the build up of the Huntingtin protein. However, this response puts the endoplasmic reticulum of the mitochondria under stress (Rao and Bredesen, 2004), affecting mitochondrial homeostasis (Bezprozvanny and Hayden, 2004). This eventually leads to cell death. The number of CAG repeats is inversely proportional to the age on onset that the symptoms of the disease begin to manifest themselves (Andrew and Hayden, 1995). It has been suggested that the number of CAG repeats also correlates to psych iatric symptoms experienced by HD sufferers, however studies have failed to find any such correlation (Berrios, Wagle, Markova, Wagle, Ho, Rubinsztein, Whittaker, Ffench-Constant, Kershaw, Rosser, Bak and Hodges, 2001). Although the IT15 gene is found in many body tissues, the primary site of degeneration is the brain (Reddy at al, 1999), in particular the striatum. In the early stages of the disease, the dorsomedial striatum is affected, then as the disease progresses, there is more pronounced degeneration of striatal neurons, with damage spreading to the cerebral cortex. The localised pathological changes found in HD patients account for the symptoms it produces. The degeneration of the basal ganglia, in particular the striatum, affects all five of the frontal subcortical neural circuits, which have been summarised by Cummings (1993). These circuits begin in the frontal cortex, which then project to regions of the striatum, the globus pallidus and the thalamus (Tekin and Cummings, 2002). The disruption caused to the motor circuit accounts for the movement disorders seen in HD, the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit the executive function problems, the orbitofrontal circuit the depression, and the anterior cingulate circuit the apathy (Tekin and Cimmings, 2002). Cummings (1993) also reported HD patients with antisocial personality disorder, and suggested a link between HD and obsessive compulsive disorder, thought to be due to the degeneration of one of the frontal subcortical neural circuits. Previous work has highlighted the role of the prefrontal cortex in the capacity to attribute thoughts and feelings to others, therefor it is plausible that HD patients may have a problem in doing this. Ruby and Decety (2004) used a perspective taking task in their neuroimaging study to highlight the importance of the frontalpolar, the somatosensory cortex and inferior parietal lobe in distinguishing the self and the other. Furthermore, Ehlers and Bratt (1996) showed that patients with serious injury to the frontal lobes had a general lack of empathy and inability to see situations from a perspective other than their own. The ability to see the perspective of others and the reduction of stereotypes has long been discussed in social psychology. Dasgupta and Asgari (2004) cite the early writings of Allport in 1935 and his opinion that attitudes are Ã¢â¬ËrigidÃ¢â¬â¢, and unlikely to be changed or modified unless Ã¢â¬Ëunder the provocation of serious affective disorganisationÃ¢â¬â¢. However, recent theories have taken the view that attitudes are more fluid and subject to change (Dasgupta and Asgari, 2004). Being able to take the perspective of another (perspective taking) is essential for avoiding the over use of social stereotypes. Galinsky and Moskowitz (2000) investigated perspective taking in normal subjects. They found that perspective taking was an effective strategy for reducing bias against members of a social group outside of the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ own. Research using caregivers of cancer patients has also shown that perspective taking Ã¢â¬Ëhelped to prompt adjustments down from a self orientated viewpointÃ¢â¬â¢ (Lobchuk and Voruer, 2003). Davis, Conklin, Smith and Luce (1996) have also looked at perspective taking in normal participants. In their study, it was found that the use of perspective taking resulted in the participants attributing traits to novel targets that they had previously used to describe themselves. In the second part of their study, the participants were given a memory task as a distracter while completing the original perspective taking task. In this condition, it was found that there was a reduced overlap between traits assigned to self and the novel group. This would imply that persepctive taking is only effective if the perspective taking task is remembered clearly. Memory is an executive function. Using the assumption of executive function being controlled by the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit as proposed by Cummings and Tekin (2002), is it possible that damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, such as that caused by HD, could cause some patients to also have a reduced overlap in t raits assigned to a novel group and the self? Galinsky (2002) suggests that bias between out-groups and the self may be due to internal psychological processes, in particular categorisation and egocentrism. Work conducted by Filoteo, Maddox and Dais (2001) has shown that patients with HD perform poorly on categorisation tasks, such as simple line stimuli categorisation into one of two groups, leading them to conclude that HD causes deficits in learning categorisation rules. Furthermore, a neuropsychological theory of categorisation published by Ashby, Alfonso-Reese, Turken and Waldron in 1998 highlights the role of caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices in category learning. . A similar category learning deficit has also been found in patients with ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (Ashby, Noble, Filoteo, Waldron and Ell, 2003), which has similar pathology to HD, affecting the brain areas involved in frontal subcortical circuits. The above evidence has illustrated a number of deficits and potential deficits in HD patients, linked to the degeneration of the striatum and frontal subcortical circuits. Given this evidence, the present study aims to investigate the potential deficits in ingroup bias and the effect of perspective taking to reduce in group bias in patients with HD. It is hypothesised that due to the degeneration of the striatum and associated prefrontal dysfunction caused by HD, and the loss of psychological functions associated with the damaged frontal subcortical circuits, HD sufferers will be unable to use a perspective taking exercise, similar to that used by Galinsky and Moskowitz (2000), to reduce their ingroup bias. This hypothesis will be tested using asylum seekers as an out group, as it is unlikely any of the participants will have had any direct contact with members of this group. Trait lists containing positive and negative items will be used to measure any bias. Method Participants Information packs about the study were sent to all patients attending the HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease clinic at the Queen Elizabeth Psychiatric Hospital, whom the Clinic Consultant deemed able to participate in the study (a copy of this pack can be found in Appendix A). All of these patients had a confirmed diagnosis of HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, via genetic testing. Of these, eleven patients volunteered to participate in the study. Two patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ data was excluded from the data analysis due to failure to complete the experimental protocol. The remaining nine participants were four males and five females, with a mean age of 52.4. These participants were at various stages of the disease, however, due to time constraints, no formal measure of the severity of the disease could be taken. Control participants were recruited by opportunity sampling. A total of fifteen control participants were tested, of which one participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ data was discarded due to a large number of outliers in their performance across all tasks in the experimental protocol. These participants had no diagnosis of HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, nor any family history of the disease. The fourteen control participants whose data was used were seven males and seven females, with a mean age of 59.4. Procedure Patients were tested either in their homes or at the HuntingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease Clinic at the Queen Elizabeth Psychiatric Hospital, in accordance with their preference. Patients were permitted to bring one friend or relative into the testing room if they desired. The control patients were tested in their homes. At the beginning of each testing session, all participants were asked to sign a consent form, and complete a short questionnaire regarding demographic information, including age, gender and educational background (a copy of this questionnaire can be found in Appendix B). Participants were then asked to complete each task from the experimental protocol (a copy of the protocol can be found in Appendix B). The testing session was recorded using a Dictaphone recording device in all sessions. After analysis, these recordings were destroyed. If any participant was unable to complete the pen and paper elements of the protocol due to reading difficulties or difficulties associated to their movement disorder, these sections were read to the participant and recorded by the experimenter. At the end of the testing session, each participant was debriefed, and given a debriefing letter to take away with him or her (a copy of this debriefing letter can be found in Appendix A). Measures FAS The FAS Word Fluency Test was used as a general measure of prefrontal cortex functioning. In this test, participants were asked to generate as many words as they could in one minute which began with the letter F, then repeat the task with the letters A and S. This test was used to assess if there was any significant difference in prefrontal cortex functioning between the patient and control groups. Emotional Stroop The Emotional Stroop tests were used to evaluate prefrontal functioning, and to measure reduction of in-group bias. This task was repeated before and after the perspective taking task. Three conditions were used; an XXXX condition, in which rows of XXXX were presented to serve as a control for the word conditions, neutral words, and words seeded with words salient to the out-group (asylum seekers). The words salient with the out group were gained via a pilot study. Initially, an opportunity sample of students from the University of Birmingham were interviewed and asked to generate words they felt were most frequently associated with asylum seekers. The words collected from this pilot study were then compiled into a questionnaire used in a second pilot study. Again, an opportunity sample of students from the University of Birmingham were used, and asked to tick the ten words from the list they felt were most frequently associated with asylum seekers. The ten highest scoring wo rds from this pilot study were then used in the stroop test. Words for the neutral and seeded conditions were matched for word frequency and word length. Perspective Taking Task A perspective taking task was used in order to try and reduce in-group bias. The participant was given a picture of a mythical asylum seeker, with a number of prompting words printed under the picture, and asked to Ã¢â¬ËAdopt the perspective of an asylum seeker and imagine the day in their life as if you were that person, looking at the world through his/her eyes and walking in their shoesÃ¢â¬â¢, and describe a typical day in that personsÃ¢â¬â¢ life. The prompting words can be found in the experimental protocol, in Appendix B. Trait Lists Trait questionnaires were used to assess in-group bias before and after the perspective taking task. The trait list contained ten positive and ten negative traits, and the order of the words on the trait lists was randomised as such that the traits listed were not in the same order for the second presentation. Analysis Relative Positivity A measure of relative positivity was obtained. This was achieved by first subtracting the number of negative traits from the number of positive ones for each pair of trait lists (self on first presentation, out-group at first presentation, self at second presentation, outgroup at second presentation). This created a measure of positivity. The numbers generated from this exercise were then used in a second calculation. The positivity of the out-group before perspective taking was subtracted from the positivity of self before perspective taking. This was repeated for the after perspective taking results. Trait Overlap In order to gain the data for the trait overlap analysis, traits assigned to both the self and the out-group for each repetition of the task (before / after perspective taking) was measured. Where a trait was shared, a score of 1 was recorded, and where a trait was not shared, a score of 0 was allocated. Results FAS Word Fluency Test Table 1.1 Mean number of words generated in the FAS test. Group Mean number of words generated Standard deviation Patients 25.00 17.62 Controls 53.50 17.99 Participants in the patient condition generated fewer words (mean score = 25, SD = 17.62) than the control condition (mean score = 53, SD = 17.99). The 95% confidence interval for the estimated general population is between Ã¢â¬â12.64 and Ã¢â¬â44.36. An independent t-test showed that if there was no significant difference between the scores of patients and controls, this result would be highly unlikely (t = -3.737, DF =21, p
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Tundra Land Biome Description and Characteristics Biomes are the worlds major habitats. These habitats are identified by the vegetation and animals that populate them. The location of each biome is determined by the regional climate. The tundra biome is characterized by extremely cold temperatures and treeless, frozen landscapes. There are two types of tundra, the arctic tundra and the alpine tundra. Key Takeaways: Tundra Biome The two types of tundra, arctic and alpine, have distinct differencesArctic tundra regions are located between coniferous forests and the north pole, while alpine tundra regions can be anywhere in the worlds high elevationsArctic tundra vegetation is mostly limited due to a number of inhospitable conditions.Tropical alpine tundra vegetation consists of a variety of short shrubs, grasses, Ã¢â¬â¹and perennialsAnimals that live in tundra regions are uniquely suited to endure the harsh conditions Tundra The arctic tundra is located between the north pole and the coniferous forests or taiga region. It is characterized by extremely cold temperatures and land that remains frozen year-round. Arctic tundra occurs in frigid mountaintop regions at very high elevations. Alpine tundra can be found in high elevations anywhere in the world, even in tropic regions. Although the land is not frozen year-round as in arctic tundra regions, these lands are typically covered in snow for most of the year. This image shows permafrost melting in the arctic region of Svalbard, Norway. Jeff Vanuga/Corbis/Getty Images Climate The arctic tundra is located in the extreme northern hemisphere around the north pole. This area experiences low amounts of precipitation and extremely cold temperatures for most of the year. The arctic tundra typically receives less than 10 inches of precipitation per year (mostly in the form of snow) with temperatures averaging below minus 30 degrees Fahrenheit in winter. In summer, the sun remains in the sky during the day and night. Summer temperatures average between 35-55 degrees Fahrenheit. The alpine tundra biome is also a cold climate region with temperatures averaging below freezing at night. This area receives more precipitation throughout the year than the arctic tundra. The average annual precipitation is around 20 inches. Most of this precipitation is in the form of snow. The alpine tundra is also a very windy area. Strong winds blow at speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour. Location Some locations of arctic and alpine tundra include: Arctic Tundra North America - Northern Alaska, Canada, GreenlandNorthern Europe - ScandinaviaNorthern Asia - Siberia Alpine Tundra North America - Alaska, Canada, U.S.A., and MexicoNorthern Europe - Finland, Norway, Russia, and SwedenAsia - Southern Asia (Himalayan Mountains), and Japan (Mt. Fuji)Africa - Mt. KilimanjaroSouth America - Andes Mountains Vegetation Alaska Cottongrass. NCTC Image Library/USFWSÃ Due to dry conditions, poor soil quality, extremely cold temperatures, and permafrost, vegetation in arctic tundra regions is limited. Arctic tundra plants must adapt to the cold, dark conditions of the tundra as the sun does not rise during the winter months. These plants experience brief periods of growth in the summer when temperatures are warm enough for vegetation to grow. The vegetation consists of short shrubs and grasses. The frozen ground prevents plants with deep roots, like trees, from growing. Tropical alpine tundra areas are treeless plains located on mountains at extremely high altitudes. Unlike in the arctic tundra, the sun remains in the sky for about the same amount of time throughout the year. This enables the vegetation to grow at an almost constant rate. The vegetation consists of short shrubs, grasses, Ã¢â¬â¹and rosette perennials. Examples of tundra vegetation include: lichens, mosses, sedges, perennial forbs, rosette, and dwarfed shrubs. Wildlife A moose in the tundra. Chase Dekker Wild-Life Images/Moment/Getty Images Animals of the arctic and alpine tundra biomes must adapt to cold and harsh conditions. Large mammals of the arctic, like musk ox and caribou, are heavily insulated against the cold and migrate to warmer areas in the winter. Smaller mammals, like the arctic ground squirrel, survive by burrowing and hibernating during the winter. Other arctic tundra animals include snowy owls, reindeer, polar bears, white foxes, lemmings, arctic hares, wolverines, caribou, migrating birds, mosquitoes, and black flies. Animals in the alpine tundra migrate to lower elevations in winter to escape the cold and find food. Animals here include marmots, mountain goats, bighorn sheep, elk, grizzly bears, springtails, beetles, grasshoppers, and butterflies.